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São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Professor da EEFE-USP; Praticante e Pesquisador de Judô; Preparador físico de atletas de modalidades esportivas de combate.

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sexta-feira, 12 de novembro de 2010

Lesões faciais em modalidades esportivas de combate

J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2010 Oct;3(4):314-7.

Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries.

Shirani G, Kalantar Motamedi MH, Ashuri A, Eshkevari PS.

Department of OMFS, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

AIM: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data.
RESULTS: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes.
CONCLUSION: In this study, prevalence of facial injuries from combat sports professionals was significantly high (roughly 80%), especially in kickboxing (in part due to use of less protective gear). Because the nose and teeth sustained the most injuries, they require more attention with regard to prevention. Kickboxing was the most injurious of these combat sports and caused the most significant number of maxillofacial trauma. More safety apparel and protective guards seem warranted in athletes of combat sports if facial injury is to be prevented.

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