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http://grupodestudoslutas.blogspot.com

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Quem sou eu

São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Professor da EEFE-USP; Praticante e Pesquisador de Judô; Preparador físico de atletas de modalidades esportivas de combate.

Arquivo do blog

quinta-feira, 31 de janeiro de 2013

A FIJ não apoia os métodos duros de treinamento

Eu apoio métodos duros de treinamento; não apoio é espancar os atletas...


The IJF Condemns Hard Training Methods

31th January 2013.


In direct connection with the complaint of a group of athletes from the national Japanese women's team, reporting the acts from their coach, the IJF strongly emphasizes its total disapproval of such behaviors.
"It has nothing to do with the spirit and philosophy of judo taught by the founding master of our sport, Master Jigoro Kano," said the President of the International Judo Federation, Mr. Marius Vizer.
 
The IJF is particularly focussed on the development and promotion of the moral code of judo. Judo is a method to develop the physical and mental capacities, whose primary concern is to maintain the health and integrity (physical and mental) of the participants. Any action that goes against these principles are banned. The IJF will therefore take all necessary measures.

 
_______________




La FIJ désapprouve les méthodes durs d'Entraînement
En lien direct avec la plainte portée par un groupe d'athlètes de la sélection nationale japonaise féminine, concernant les agissements de la part de leur coach, la FIJ tient à fortement souligner sa totale désapprobation envers de tels comportements. "Ceux-ci n'ont rien à voir avec l'esprit du judo et la philosophie enseignée par le maître fondateur de notre sport, Jigoro Kano", déclare le Président de la Fédération Internationale de Judo, M. Marius Vizer.
 
La FIJ met particulièrement l'accent sur le développement et sur la promotion du code moral du judo. Le judo est un moyen d'éducation physique et mental dont le souci premier est de préserver la santé et l'intégrité (physique et mentale) de ses pratiquants. Toute action qui va contre ces principes est bannie. La FIJ va par conséquent prendre toutes les mesures qui s'imposent.

quarta-feira, 30 de janeiro de 2013

Tem gente que acha normal...

Dica do Tanner sobre o comportamentos dos treinadores japoneses junto às atletas:
http://www.biobiochile.cl/2013/01/30/judocas-del-equipo-olimpico-japones-fueron-golpeadas-con-sables-de-bambu-por-su-entrenador.shtml



Judocas del equipo olímpico japonés fueron golpeadas con sables de bambú por su entrenador
Miércoles 30 enero 2013 | 13:58 · Actualizado: 14:05
Publicado por Alberto Gonzalez | La Información es de Agencia AFP · 1366 visitas
El mundo del judo japonés está conmocionado tras conocerse que las componentes del equipo olímpico femenino eran maltratadas regularmente por su entrenador, que las golpeaba con sables de bambú y las aboteteaba.
El escándalo saltó después de que 15 jóvenes se decidieran a denunciar el mes pasado la manera de actuar de su entrenador ante el Comité Olímpico Japonés (COJ).
Las judocas, algunas de las cuales participaron en los Juegos Olímpicos de Londres-2012, acusaron a su entrenador Ryuji Sonoda de abofetearles y de golpearles con sables de bambú como los utilizados en la práctica del kendo, una modalidad de arte marcial.
“Hemos solicitado a la Federación Japonesa de Judo que investigue y tomar las medidas necesarias si se confirman los hechos”, declaró este miércoles un responsable del COJ.
El presidente de la Federación de Judo, Koshi Onozawa aseguró que Sonoda y otros entrenadores admitieron los hechos y que fueron advertidos por el organismo.
“El pasado mes de septiembre, recibimos informaciones sobre el hecho de que Sonoda hubiese podido maltratar físicamente a sus atletas. Le interrogamos, al igual que a las deportistas, y se demostró que las acusaciones estaban fundadas”, declaró Onozawa en conferencia de prensa.
Los agresores fueron advertidos por la federación, pero no suspendidos, y amenazados con “sanciones más fuertes si se repetían tales hechos”, añadió Onozawa.
Estas informaciones se conocen semanas después del suicidio de un estudiante que era regularmente maltratado por su entrenador de básquetbol.
Según un informe publicado en enero de 2011, cada año mueren en Japón cuatro niños durante los entrenamientos de judo.

terça-feira, 29 de janeiro de 2013

Desenvolvimento de protetor de tórax para o TKD

http://biolsport.com/fulltxt.php?ICID=1029822

sábado, 26 de janeiro de 2013

Análise de capacetes no TKD


 2013 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Safety performance evaluation of taekwondo headgear.

Source

Department of Physical Education, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

With over 20 years of taekwondo concussion research highlighting the high incidence of injury, previous studies recommend an investigation of headgear impact attenuation performance.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine impact attenuation differences between the anterior, posterior and sides of selected taekwondo headgear brands.

DESIGN:

Between-groups.

SETTING:

Biomechanics laboratory.

METHODS:

Five different commercially available taekwondo headgear were selected for impact testing. A 50th percentile Hybrid II Dummy Crash Test head and neck was fitted with the selected helmet and was bolted to a 25 kg steel torso-like structure. Each headgear model was impacted eight times to the anterior, posterior and sides by a 6.75 kg bowling ball at three heights to produce 52.25, 85 and 144 J strikes.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:

Resultant head linear acceleration.

RESULTS:

Two-way (Helmet×Location) mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures on the second factor was performed to determine the differences between headgear by location of impact. There was a two-way (Helmet×Location) interaction for acceleration (η(2)=0.368).

CONCLUSIONS:

Taekwondo headgear manufacturers and sport governing bodies must consider improving the design of especially anterior helmet properties.

Genética e judô


 2013 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print]

ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism is not Associated with Elite Judo Athletic Status.

Source

INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

We compared ACTN3 R577X genotype/allele frequencies in the majority of all-times best Spanish judo male athletes (n=108) and 343 ethnically-matched non-athletic men. No between-group differences were found in allele (P=0.077) or genotype distributions (P=0.178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly allowing to distinguish individuals predisposed to either 'endurance' or more 'power' sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as 'purely' power or endurance-based. Although genetic testing (i.e. of ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talents and potentials of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo.

terça-feira, 22 de janeiro de 2013

Prevenção de quedas em crianças


 2013 Jan 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevention of fall-related injuries in 7-year-old to 12-year-old children: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

Source

Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

To counteract the recently observed increase in forearm fractures in children worldwide, an educational programme to improve fall skills was developed. In this 8-week programme children learned basic martial arts falling techniques in their physical education classes. In this study, the effectiveness of this educational programme to improve fall skills was evaluated.

METHODS:

A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 33 primary schools. The intervention group received the educational programme to improve falling skills during their physical education (PE) classes whereas the control group received their regular PE curriculum. At baseline (October 2009) and follow-up (May 2010), a questionnaire was completed by the children about their physical activity behaviours. Furthermore, fall-related injuries were registered continuously during an entire school-year.

RESULTS:

A total of 36 incident injuries was reported in the intervention group, equalling an injury incidence density (IID) of 0.14 fall-related injuries per 1000 h of physical activity (95% CI 0.09 to 0.18). In contrast, 96 injuries were reported by the control group corresponding to an IID of 0.26 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.32). However, because intracluster correlation was high (ICC=0.46), differences in injury incidence were not statistically significant. When activity level was taken into account, a trend was shown suggesting that the 'falling is a sport' programme was effective in decreasing falling-related injury risk, but only in the least active children.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

Although results did not reach significance because of strong clustering effects, a trend was found suggesting that a school-based educational programme to improve falling skills may be more beneficial for the prevention of falling-related injuries in children with low levels of habitual physical activity.

sexta-feira, 11 de janeiro de 2013

Para reflexão

O problema era a "pegada na perna". Fizeram as restrições e o percentual de ippon despencou. Com certeza é muito mais bonito verem as lutas terminarem com duas punições a uma do que ver alguém ser projetado de tê-guruma : )
Agora fizeram uma reunião de uma tarde e mudaram de novo as regras.
Como a charge indica, tem sempre algo atrás das mudanças, que muitas vezes não passam pela melhoria do judô (nem para quem assiste e muito menos para quem luta).

Análise técnica e tática e respostas fisiológicas ao boxe


 2013 Jan;8(1):84-91.

Amateur boxing: activity profile of winners and losers.

Source

Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, University of Essex, Essex, UK.

Abstract

An activity profile of competitive 3 × 2-min novice-level amateur boxing was created based on video footage and postbout blood [La] in 32 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 19.3 ± 1.4 y, body mass 62.6 ± 4.1 kg. Winners landed 18 ± 11 more punches than losers by applying more lead-hand punches in round 1 (34.2 ± 10.9 vs 26.5 ± 9.4), total punches to the head (121.3 ± 10.2 vs 96.0 ± 9.8), and block and counterpunch combinations (2.8 ± 1.1 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2) over all 3 rounds and punching combinations (44.3 ± 6.4 vs 28.8 ± 6.7) in rounds 1 and 3 (all P < .05). In 16 boxers, peak postbout blood [La] was 11.8 ± 1.6 mmol/L irrespective of winning or losing. The results suggest that landing punches requires the ability to maintain a high frequency of attacking movements, in particular the lead-hand straight punch to the head together with punching combinations. Defensive movements must initiate a counterattack. Postbout blood [La] suggests that boxers must be able to tolerate a lactate production rate of 1.8 mmol · L-1 · min-1 and maintain skillful techniques at a sufficient activity rate.

quarta-feira, 9 de janeiro de 2013

Kung fu e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes


 2013 Jan;21(1):37-51. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2012.738444.

Self-perception and attitude toward physical activity in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

Source

a Exercise, Health & Performance Faculty Research Group, Faculty of Health Science , The University of Sydney , Sydney , Australia.

Abstract

This randomized, placebo-exercise controlled trial found that 6-months of Kung Fu training improved enjoyment of physical activity more than the placebo-exercise intervention, while both groups improved perceptions of behavioral conduct and changed strategies for physical activity. Importantly, family support for physical activity declined in subjects who had more visits to health care professionals, which is worrisome, as this represents another risk factor for sedentary behavior in this vulnerable cohort that must be overcome for successful, sustained behavioral change. Programs supporting positive attitudes of both adolescents and their families toward physical activity will be necessary to optimize exercise adoption and adherence as a means to combat the obesity epidemic in childhood and adolescence.

Protocolos de exercício no TKD e luta em competição


 2013 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Taekwondo Exercise Protocols do not Recreate the Physiological Responses of Championship Combat.

Source

Sport and Exercise Research Group, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the external validity of Taekwondo-specific exercise protocols. 10 male international Taekwondo competitors (age 18±2 years) took part in a championship combat and an exercise protocol that simulated the activity pattern of Taekwondo combat. Heart rate and venous blood samples were obtained in both settings. Despite similarity in the activity profiles, the championship Taekwondo combats elicited higher (p < 0.05) heart rate (188±8 bpm), plasma lactate (12.2±4.6 mmol.L − 1), glucose (10.3±1.1 mmol.L − 1), ­glycerol (143.4±49.4 µmol.L − 1), ­adrena­line (2.7±1.7 nmol.L − 1) and noradrenaline (14.3±9.4 nmol.L − 1) responses than the ­Taekwondo exercise protocol (heart rate: 172±4 beats.min − 1; plasma lactate: 3.6±2.7 mmol.L − 1; glucose: 5.9±0.8 mmol.L − 1; glycerol: 77.7±21.3 µmol.L − 1; adrenaline: 0.6±0.2 nmol.L − 1 and noradrenaline: 3.0±1.1 nmol.L − 1). This discrepancy in the physiological responses appeared to be mediated by a reduced stress response in the Taekwondo exercise protocol. These findings suggest that Taekwondo-specific exercise protocols are not appropriate to study the physiological demands of Taekwondo. ­Strategies designed to increase the stress response in this setting may be necessary to improve the external validity of this experimental framework.

Judoca, presidente do Comitê Olímpico Espanhol, acusado de plágio em sua tese de doutorado

O interessantes da matéria é que a orientadora também foi acusada de outros problemas em sua carreira. Se tudo for verdade, é a prova de que as pessoas realmente se agrupam conforme o caráter...

http://www.eldiario.es/politica/presidente-candidatura-denunciado-JJOO-Pekin_0_87841529.html

Campeã olímpica barrada em centro de treinamento

Après avoir d'abord repris l'entraînement dans son club, Lucie Décosse a fait son retour à l’INSEP cette semaine. Mais après 3 mois de vacances, certaines mémoires semblaient avoir oublié la championne olympique de Londres ! A son arrivée sur les lieux, sans badge, les vigiles de l'accueil n'ont pas souhaité la laisser entrer. Ni elle, ni son entraîneur, Larbi Benboudaoud, pourtant à l’INSEP depuis plus de 20 ans. A l’INSEP, on ne rentre pas comme dans un moulin et les vigiles leur ont expliqué qu'ils ne les connaissaient pas. Ils ont fini par retrouver la raison... et la mémoire.

http://www.rmcsport.fr/editorial/326650/l-insep-refuse-de-laisser-entrer-decosse/

segunda-feira, 7 de janeiro de 2013

VFC e carga de esforço em atletas de TKD


RELACIÓN ENTRE EL DOMINIO FRECUENCIAL DE LA VARIABILIDAD DEL RITMO CARDIACO Y LA CARGA DE ESFUERZO EN TAEKWONDISTAS CHILENOS DE ELITE


Luperfina del R. Cortés Escobar
Tomás Herrera Valenzuela
Felipe Soro Álvarez

RESUMEN
El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existe relación entre el dominio frecuencial de la Variabilidad del Ritmo Cardiaco (VRC) y la carga de esfuerzo percibida por taekwondistas chilenos de elite.
Se estudio a cinco sujetos pertenecientes a selección chilena de taekwondo durante una semana de entrenamiento, a quienes se les valoró la VRC a través de un monitor POLAR RS 810 y el programa informático Kubios HRV versión 2.0. Por otro lado, se registró la percepción del esfuerzo de los deportistas después de cada sesión de entrenamiento El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó mediante el paquete estadístico GraphPad Prism 4.0.
Se encontró una correlación positiva (P<0 bandas="bandas" carga="carga" componentes="componentes" con="con" correlaci="correlaci" de="de" entre="entre" esfuerzo="esfuerzo" frecuenciales="frecuenciales" hf="hf" la="la" las="las" lf="lf" los="los" mientras="mientras" mostraron="mostraron" ms2="ms2" n.u.="n.u." n="n" negativa="negativa" p="p" para="para" percibida.="percibida." que="que" relaci="relaci" u.n.="u.n." una="una" valores="valores" versus="versus" vrc="vrc" y="y">Los resultados obtenidos indican que la VRC en el dominio frecuencial se muestra como herramienta útil para detectar determinados patrones de comportamiento cardiaco vinculados a la carga de esfuerzo. Por otro lado, se puede establecer que la percepción del esfuerzo en los sujetos de estudio es un indicador valido para la planificación de la carga de entrenamiento.


Mãos evoluídas para lutar

FIGHTING SHAPED HUMAN HANDS


The human hand is a finely tuned piece of equipment that is capable of remarkable dexterity: creating art, performing music and manipulating tools. Yet David Carrier from the University of Utah, USA, suggests that the human hand may have also evolved its distinctive proportions for a less enlightened reason: for use as a weapon (p. 236).
Carrier recalls that the idea occurred to him during an impassioned discussion with fellow biomechanic Frank Fish about sperm whales. Explaining that he had published a paper suggesting that the whales might use their spermaceti organs as battering rams, Carrier says ‘Frank didn't buy the argument and at one point he raised his fist and said, “I can hit you in the face with this, but that is not what it evolved for.”’ A light went on in Carrier's head. Sure, the human hand evolved for dexterity, but he adds, ‘You could manipulate the proportions of a chimp hand in ways that would enhance manual dexterity, but they would not necessarily end up with the proportions that we have.’ Maybe there was more to Fish's challenge than met the eye.
According to Carrier and colleague Michael Morgan, modern chimpanzees have long palms and fingers with a short thumb, while the human palm and fingers are much shorter and the thumb longer and stronger. Carrier explains that this squat arrangement allows us to clench our hand into a fist when we fold the thumb across the fingertips; however, chimp fingers form an open doughnut shape when curled. Could the tightly packed human fist provide internal support – buttressing – to the digits to protect them from damage during combat? In addition, Carrier wondered whether curling the fingers into a fist could allow punching men to deliver a more powerful blow (increase the peak force of an impact) than slapping with the open hand. Carrier and Morgan decided to find out whether hands are more effective when balled into a fist or wielded in a slap.
‘Fortunately, Michael had a lot of experience with martial arts and he knew people who were willing to serve as subjects’, Carrier recalls. Asking the athletes to thump a punchbag with their hands in a range of shapes (from open-handed slaps to closed fists) using various delivery styles (over arm, sideways and head on), Morgan and Carrier measured the force of each impact. However, they were surprised to see that the punch did not deliver more force per blow. ‘In terms of the peak forces or the impulse, it did not matter whether the subjects were hitting with a clenched fist or open palm’, Carrier says.
Next the duo tested whether buttressing the hand by curling the fingers and thumb stiffens the structure. They asked the martial arts experts to roll their hands into variations of the fist shape – two with the thumb extended sideways – and then push the first joint of the index finger against a force transducer to measure the rigidity of the knuckle joint in the presence and absence of the buttressing thumb. Impressively, the knuckle joint was four times more rigid when supported by the thumb. And when the duo measured the amount of force that the athletes could deliver through the fist surface of the index and middle fingers, they found that the presence of the buttressing thumb doubled the delivered force by transmitting it to the wrist through the metacarpals (palm bones) of the thumb and the index finger.
So our short, square hands are perfectly proportioned to stiffen our fists for use as weapons and allow us – well, males predominantly – to deliver powerful punches without incurring injuries.

References



http://jeb.biologists.org/content/216/2/236.full.pdf+html

domingo, 6 de janeiro de 2013

Parâmetros de força em atletas de judô


http://scholar.google.com.br/scholar_url?hl=pt-BR&q=http://www.awf.wroc.pl/files_mce/aktualnosci/2012/12/human_movement_13_4_.pdf%23page%3D38&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm2ZDNtpbXWldRT3mpeq2wSteVX0fw&oi=scholaralrt

Salto vertical em artistas marciais

http://ernd.usm.my/journal/journal/OA413.pdf

Parâmetros antropométricos e força de preensão manual de judocas

http://www.brjb.com.br/files/brjb_177_6201209_id2.pdf

quinta-feira, 3 de janeiro de 2013

Respostas fisiológicas ao BJJ. Artigo liderado pelo Leonardo Vidal Andreato


http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/139174

Kinesiology, Vol.44 No.2 December 2012.

Original scientific paper
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND RATE OF PERCEIVED EXERTION IN BRAZILIAN JIU-JITSU ATHLETES
Leonardo Vidal Andreato ; Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Human Physiology Department, State University of Maringá, Brazil
Solange Marta Franzói de Moraes ; Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Human Physiology Department, State University of Maringá, Brazil
João Victor Del Conti Esteves ; Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Human Physiology Department, State University of Maringá, Brazil
Raphaela Regina de Araújo Pereira ; Laboratory of Research and Development of Drug Liberations Systems, Pharmacy Department, State University of Maringá, Brazil
Tricy Lopes de Moraes Gomes ; Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Human Physiology Department, State University of Maringá, Brazil
Thaís Vidal Andreato ; Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Human Physiology Department, State University of Maringá, Brazil
Emerson Franchini ; Martial Arts and Combat Sports Research Group, Sport Department, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, Brazil    
Abstracts
In this study, the physiological responses and rate of perceived exertion in Brazilian jiu-jitsu fighters submitted to a combat simulation were investigated. Venous blood samples and heart rate were taken from twelve male Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (27.1±2.7 yrs, 75.4±8.8 kg, 174.9±4.4 cm, 9.2±2.4% fat), at rest, after a warm-up (ten minutes), immediately after the fight simulation (seven minutes) and after recovery (fourteen minutes). After the combat the rate of perceived exertion was collected. The combat of the Brazilian jiujitsu
fighters did not change blood concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein, ureia and ammonia. However, blood levels of high density
lipoprotein were significantly higher post-fight (before: 43.0±6.9 mg/dL, after: 45.1±8.0 mg/dL) and stayed at high levels during the recovery period (43.6±8.1 mg/dL) compared to the rest values (40.0±6.6 mg/dL). The fight did not cause changes in the concentrations of the cell damage markers of creatine kinase, aspartate
aminotransferase and creatinine. However, blood concentrations of the alanine aminotransferase (before: 16.1±7.1 U/L, after: 18.6±7.1 U/L) and lactate dehydrogenase (before: 491.5±177.6 U/L, after: 542.6±141.4 U/L) enzymes were elevated after the fight. Heart rate (before: 122±25 bpm, after: 165±17 bpm) and lactate (before: 2.5±1.2 mmol/L, after: 11.9±5.8 mmol/L) increased significantly with the completion of combat. Despite this, the athletes rated the fight as being light or somewhat hard (12±2). These results showed that
muscle glycogen is not the only substrate used in Brazilian jiu-jitsu fights, since there are indications of activation of the glycolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic pathways. Furthermore, the athletes rated the combats
as being light or somewhat hard although muscle damage markers were generated.
Keywords
energy demands; combat sport; recovery; metabolic profile

Análise do mae-geri

http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/139192

VISUALIZED MOVEMENT PATTERNS AND THEIR ANALYSIS TO CLASSIFY SIMILARITIES – DEMONSTRATED BY THE KARATE KICK MAE-GERI
Kerstin Witte ; Department of Sport Science, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
Peter Emmermacher ; Department of Sport Science, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
Nico Langenbeck ; Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automation,IFF Virtual Development and Training Centre VDTC, Magdeburg, Germany
Juergen Perl ; Department of Computer Science, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
Abstract
Single biomechanical parameters or characteristics cannot reflect the complexity of movements in sport. For this reason the paper introduces a procedure to visualize the movement pattern on the basis of the relevant movement angles to get a visual impression of the holistic movement. This procedure was applied to the karate kick mae-geri (front kick) which was executed by five athletes. By means of this method it was possible to identify similarities and differences in coordination between the movements of the individual karatekas.
In addition, statistical analyses (coefficient of variability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Euclidean distances) were used to confirm this and to determine the most stable angles in performance.
Keywords
biomechanics; movement pattern; coordination; karate; nonlinear approach; movement variability

quarta-feira, 2 de janeiro de 2013

Participação de crianças e adolescentes no boxe: posição da American Academy of Pediatrics


 2012 Jan;17(1):39-40.

Boxing participation by children and adolescents: A joint statement with the American Academy of Pediatrics.

[Article in English, French]

Abstract

Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years of age participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurological injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries occurring in boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics vigorously oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.