Tsai ML, Chou KM, Chang CK, Fang SH.
National Taiwan Sport University, Taiwan.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative effects of prolonged intensive training and rapid weight loss on immunological parameters and anti-oxidation activity of elite male Taiwanese Taekwondo athletes. DESIGN: Sixteen elite male Taekwondo athletes (ages: 21.6 (1.3) years of age, Ht 173.7 (5.5) cm) volunteered to participate in this study. Beginning at 30 days prior to a national competition, saliva samples were obtained over a seven-week training, competition and post-competition period. Levels of salivary IgA, cortisol, lactoferrin and FRSA were measured at 30-day, 14-day, 7-day, and 1-day pre-competition and 1-day, 7-day, 19-day post-competition. Body weight and body fat were also recorded. RESULTS: Mean body weight was notably decreased during the week immediately before competition. Results reveal that the levels of salivary IgA were differentially regulated during the training, competition and recovery period; while the salivary cortisol and lactoferrin concentrations and FRSA were not appreciably affected during the training and competition period. Furthermore, the results of URTI incidence indicate that following the decreases of mucosal immunity, the risk of acquiring infection was significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that mucosal immunity in elite male TKD athletes is modulated by exercise and rapid weight reduction during the training, competition and recovery period. Cumulative effects of prolonged intensive training and rapid weight reduction suppressed mucosal immunity. Furthermore, due to the inverted exclamation mark yenopen window inverted exclamation mark of impaired immunity during the pre-competition period, the incidence of URTI was significantly increased after competition.